Bisphenol A (BPA) and its family of replacements including bisphenol S, F, AF and more are an emerging contaminant of concern due to their endocrine disruption potential. Bisphenols are used in large quantities in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins and are found in many products such as food and drink packaging, store receipts and medical devices. Some studies have shown BPA to be estrogenic, developmentally toxic, and to have potentially carcinogenic effects.

Exposure to bisphenol A is from a variety of routes. These include food, packaging, receipts and dust. Although rapidly metabolized and excreted from the body, adverse effects of BPA have been observed at low levels.

Bisphenol A is being phased out and replaced by analogous bisphenols including bisphenol S, bisphenol F and others. The occurrence, fate and toxicity of these replacements is an area of active and ongoing study.

Bisphenols in Aqueous and Environmental samples

Since 2008, AXYS has measured BPA in water, soil and wastewater treatment plant matrices at low ng concentrations. Isotope dilution LC-MS/MS and careful control of laboratory background enable these low reporting limits. in 2017, we expanded our offering to 6 bisphenols. This analysis is accredited to ISO-17025 standards by CALA.

Bisphenols and Environmental Phenols in Urine/Serum

In 2005, SGS AXYS led the industry in offering analysis of BPA and its glucuronide metabolites in human serum and urine by LC-MS/MS. Our use of enzyme-based glucoronidation allows for the measurement of both free and conjugated bisphenols. Isotope dilution and careful control of laboratory background enable reporting limits in the pg/mL range. We have since expanded our list to include multiple bisphenol analogues and analyzed thousands of samples in a variety of biomonitoring programs.

Targets and Reporting Limits

Surface & Ground water (ng/L)

Influent (ng/L)

Effluent (ng/L)

Soil (ng/g)

Biosolid (ng/g)

Urine (ng/mL)

Bisphenol A

2

4

2

0.4

0.8

0.2

Bisphenol S

1.3

2.5

1.3

0.25

0.5

0.08

Bisphenol F

5

10

5

1

2.0

0.5

Bisphenol AF

2

4

2

0.4

0.8

NA

Bisphenol B

2

4

2

0.4

0.8

NA

Bisphenol E

5

10

5

1

2.0

NA

Bisphenol P

NA

NA

NA

NA

NA

0.15

 

Application Spotlight

Our bisphenol A analysis was used by Environment Canada as part of a nationwide study on occurrence, removal and mass balance of BPA in over 800 wastewater and sludge/biosolids samples. This study were integral in understanding BPA occurrence in Canada and determining optimum operational conditions for the removal of BPA through the WWTP process. Results are published in Guerra et al, 2015.